Table 2.

Elements of a resilient forest with examples of restoration options using a step-wise approach.

ElementDescriptionExamples of restoration options
CompositionSpecies, ecosystems and genetic variation within speciesSupplementary planting of native tree species or local varieties; attempts to attract animals (bird nesting sites, microhabitats); potential species translocation.
PatternSpatial variation of forest with respect to age, size etcSelective planting (or removal) to increase age variation in restored forests; management to boost natural regeneration; retention of old trees.
FunctionContinuity, proportion of old and dead timber, presence of ecological interactionsRetention (or creation) of dead timber in restored forests; reintroduction of symbiotic fungi.
ProcessDisturbance patterns, renewal processesManagement to simulate disturbances, such as prescribed burning and recreation of natural flooding.
ContinuityAge, total area, fragmentationUse of biological corridors and stepping stones to increase the functional size of restored forest
ResilienceTree health, presence of stress factorsResilience increased by addressing the five elements above; management may also be needed to control invasive species and diseases.