Table 1.

Types of stepwise restoration for forest landscape restoration.

Pre-planned stepwise approachDeveloping stepwise approachResponsive stepwise approach
Either there are efforts to incorporate elements of ecological complexity from the start of restoration, or although early stages of restoration focus on tree cover and basic services, plans to increase the ecological complexity of the system incrementally exist from the beginning.The restoration program starts with narrow aims like timber stock, providing fuelwood or stabilising soil, but goals are consciously and systematically modified to include ecological complexity.There is no systematic effort to restore ecological complexity within restoration, but specific actions are taken that either capitalise on the serendipitous introduction of ecological complexity or address problems that arise from a lack of ecological complexity.