Table 4:

Time and variable cost (in U.S. dollars, or US$) per mean trail camera deployment period (10.8 d) to monitor human use at the Bluffton Native Habitat Waterway, Bluffton, Indiana, and Deetz Nature Preserve in New Haven, Indiana, during the summer of 2016. All estimates are from the 2016 field season and include time for camera data collection and maintenance and subsequent image preparation, interpretation, and analysis. Costs do not include travel to/from field site or per-diem expenses. Mean cost for data collection through analysis for one day for one camera station based on 10.8-d deployment period was US$217.72.

Equipment and Supply Costs per Deployment (US$)aMean Deployment Time, N = 32 Study Deployments (hr)Time for Data Retrieval, Camera Maintenance. (hr)Image Preparation and Interpretation (hr)bData Processing and Analysis (hr)cTotal Personnel Costs (US$)dTotal Cost (US$)
MeanStd devMemberLeaderMemberLeaderMemberLeaderMember
  • a Estimated costs include batteries and memory cards only and do not include a single trail camera (US$150) or nest boxes. Replacement of a memory card and camera batteries occurred once per 10.8 d deployment.

  • b Image preparation and interpretation time accounts for visually scanning each image for the presence of visitors and, when present, recording date, day of the week, time, number of visitors in the party, and visitor activity. When possible, from subsequent photographs, visit duration was established and recorded.

  • c Data processing time accounted for compiling prepared data from multiple deployments to determine site specific use, activity values, and their statistical evaluation.

  • d Total hourly costs for a team leader involved with data analysis and supervising data collection and a team member who examined imagery were calculated at the hourly rates of US$28.39 and US$15.49, respectively (US OPM 2016), plus a 40% allowance for benefits. Hourly personnel costs at the time of publication (OPM 2022) were 12% higher than at the time of the field study.